The Fallacy Detective
Francis Bacon recommended practice
in acting (public recitation or oral interpretation) because it
"strengthens the memory, regulates the tone of the voice and the
efficacy of pronunciation; gracefully composes the countenance and the
gesture; procures a becoming degree of assurance; and lastly, accustoms
youth to the eye of men." (Advancement of Learning, VI, iv)
Speech is an activity emphasizing the development of communication
skills. Students in speech compete in a variety of speaking events. These
speaking events are generally divided into two main categories with several
types under each category:
- I. Oral Interpretation (interpretive reading) is the reading aloud
of something someone else wrote, paying special attention to quality
of voice, articulation, volume, and inflection.
- Prose (stories, essays, narratives, etc.)
- Drama (excerpts from plays)
- Duo (two person dialogs or excerpts from plays)
- Non-original oratory is a speech written by someone else.
- II. Original Speech is one written by the speaker. Each type of speech
has a time limit.
- Extemporaneous speaking is when the contestant is given a speech
topic during the competition and has only about an hour to prepare
- Impromptu speaking allows the speech contestant only a few minutes
to prepare the speech.
- Oration is a fully prepared and memorized speech. There
are 5 types of oration.
- Persuasive -- You want to convince your listeners to believe
as you wish.
- The speech to actuate will elicit from the audience some
- The speech to stimulate or inspire -- You want to arouse enthusiasm
or to deepen respect or feeling.