Trivium Pursuit

My video on homeschooling — offering the Ron Paul Curriculum’s summer school program two months early

March 28th, 2020

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Here is my recent video on homeschooling.

To encourage you to switch today, I am offering the Ron Paul Curriculum’s summer school program two months early.

You get 90 days for $40, plus $50 per one-year course. I recommend two courses per student.

Test drive any course before you join: five free lessons.

The special order form is here:

RON-PAUL-CURRICULUM-e1489617234705

 

John Quincy Adams was homeschooled by his mother in American Classical education

March 26th, 2020

Excerpt taken from History Of The Life, Administration, and Times Of John Quincy Adams, by John Robert Irelan, 1887, page 17, as reported in the Principle Approach Education newsletter:

John Quincy Adams was homeschooled by his mother in American Classical education, learning to read from the Bible and studying poetry and literature, French, and history up to the age of ten. Here follows a letter written by John Quincy at the age of eleven in which we can clearly see the heart and mind of a “Principle Approach” student:

“Honored Mamma,
My papa enjoins it upon me to keep a journal, or a diary of the events that happen to me, and of objects that I see, and of characters that I converse with from day to day; and altho’ I am convinced of the utility, importance, and necessity of this exercise, yet I have not the patience and perseverance enough to do it so constantly as I ought. My papa, who takes a great deal of pains to put me in the right way, has also advised me to keep copies of all my letters, and has given me a convenient blank book for this end; and altho’ I shall have the mortification a few years hence to read a great deal of my childish nonsense, yet I shall have the pleasure and advantage of remarking the several steps by which I shall have advanced in taste, judgment, and knowledge. A journal book and a letter book of a lad of eleven years old can not be expected to contain much of science, literature, arts, wisdom or wit, yet it may serve to perpetuate many observations that I may make, and may hereafter help me to recollect both persons and things that would otherwise escape my memory.”

Post may contain affiliate links to materials I recommend. Read my full disclosure statement.

 

Practice Maintaining the Face of an Angel

March 22nd, 2020

Stephen Accused of Blasphemy — 8 And Stephen, full of faith and power, did great wonders and signs among the people. 9 Then there arose some from what is called the Synagogue of the Freedmen (Cyrenians, Alexandrians, and those from Cilicia and Asia), disputing with Stephen. 10 And they were not able to resist the wisdom and the Spirit by which he spoke. 11 Then they secretly induced men to say, “We have heard him speak blasphemous words against Moses and God.” 12 And they stirred up the people, the elders, and the scribes; and they came upon him, seized him, and brought him to the council. 13 They also set up false witnesses who said, “This man does not cease to speak blasphemous words against this holy place and the law; 14 for we have heard him say that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this place and change the customs which Moses delivered to us.” 15 And all who sat in the council, looking steadfastly at him, saw his face as the face of an angel. –Acts 6:8-15

Notes from The MacArthur Study Bible:

Acts 6:15 face of an angel. Pure, calm, unruffled composure, reflecting the presence of God.

Pure, calm, unruffled composure, reflecting the presence of God. Right now, I’d like you to put this face on — pure, calm, unruffled composure, reflecting the presence of God. Look at yourself in the mirror and remember this pose. Next time something happens that irritates you, put that face on. Practice this pose. Use it often. The more you practice, the easier it gets. In fact, it will become so easy that as you put on this pose, your mind will even become pure, calm, and unruffled. It will become automatic.

What would this world be like if we all did this.

Angels venerating the Madonna Giotto
Angels Venerating the Madonna by Giotto di Bondone

Guido Reni Angel of the Annunciation
Angel of the Annunciation by Giotto di Bondone

Leonardo da Vinci detail from Madonna of the Rocks
Madonna of the Rocks by Leonardo da Vinci

Post may contain affiliate links to materials I recommend. Read my full disclosure statement.

 

Discounts and Freebies from our Homeschool Convention Friends

March 18th, 2020

As the homeschool community respects “social distancing” to combat coronavirus, many are missing the opportunity to browse, learn, and shop at conferences across the country. So far, around 20 homeschool conferences have been cancelled, and more are expected to cancel. Vendor friends of ours were discussing this and decided to band together to help. We are all in this together and, during this time of need, we are glad to support you.

We want to give you the opportunity to take advantage of some of the conference specials being offered. Please look at these opportunities from many vendors who were looking forward to serving you at the conventions this year.

Included in this convention special is a special price on our Pilgrim’s Progress ebooks.

Final Cover John Bunyan Part One

 

The Coronavirus and Homeschooling

March 9th, 2020

Ron Paul Homeschool Curriculum

The Coronavirus and Homeschooling
by Ron Paul

Fears regarding the coronavirus will lead to new interest in homeschooling.

This has begun in Hong Kong.

Some families hesitate to switch because the parents have no experience in homeschooling. A great advantage of my curriculum is that inexperienced teachers can get their children up to speed within a few day. Videos do the heavy lifting.

If fear spreads, some parents will at last be willing to pull their children out of the public schools. If someone asks you what you think, encourage the enquirer to move ahead.

New teachers and classroom-educated students can view the first five lessons in every course for free. This removes most of the uncertainty.

Ron Paul Curriculum

 

Free — Ancient Literature — Significant Excerpts From the Books of Classical Authors Which You Can Use to Supplement Your History Curriculum Volume Four: Ancient Egypt

February 26th, 2020

Ancient History Primary Sources Ancient Egypt Cover

Use primary sources to enhance your study of ancient history.

This 130-page ebook can be used to supplement any ancient history curriculum and is suitable for ages ten through adult. For this volume, we combed through the books of 32 ancient authors to find 78 significant excerpts concerning the time period from The Tower of Babel to 30 B.C. We then arranged the excerpts chronologically and provided the text and citation for each.

Today, we are giving away this ebook. You can download it here.

Contents of Ebook

Moses — NAME OF AUTHOR
Bible: Genesis — NAME OF BOOK
The Tower of Babel — DESCRIPTION OF SIGNIFICANT EXCERPT

Josephus
Antiquities of the Jews
Where the children of Ham settled after the Tower of Babel

David
Bible: Psalm
Egypt was called the land of Ham or the land of Mizraim

Herodotus
The History
Min, first king of Egypt

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
Early history of Egypt

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
Cheops builds the pyramid

Herodotus
The History
The pyramids

The Instruction of Ptah-Hotep
Considered the oldest book in the world; a compilation of wise sayings; written c. 2450 B.C.

Letter of Pepi II
Letter of Egyptian pharaoh Pepi II (ruled 2161-2067 B.C.) to Harkhuf (an Egyptian official)

Moses
Bible: Genesis
Abram is called by God and travels to Canaan (c.1875 B.C.)

The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus
Earliest known surgical document; written around the 16th century B.C.

Epitaph of Beka
Inscription on a funeral pillar; Beka, the person who died, was the great steward of the Public Granary

The Laboring Classes
Compares the different occupations and their hardships with the easy occupation of a scribe

Moses
Bible: Genesis
Jacob is established in Egypt (c.1660 B.C.)

Herodotus
The History
Farm labor in Egypt is easy because of the Nile

Herodotus
The History
The people and customs of Egypt; embalming

Herodotus
The History
Egyptian crocodile and other animals

The Shipwrecked Sailor
A man tells of his fantastic adventure

Moses
Bible: Exodus
Moses leads the Israelites out of Egypt (c.1445 B.C.)

Justin
Epitome of the Philippic Histories
Roman view of the early history of the Jews and of the Exodus

Pliny the Elder
Natural History
Description of Egypt

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
Description of Egypt

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
How the pharaohs lived

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
Customs of the early Egyptians

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
Egyptian medicine

Products of Arabia
Inscriptions on the inner walls of an Egyptian temple giving an account of the conquest of Arabia during the time of Thutmose III (ruled c. 1138-1085 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible: I Kings
David reigns over Israel (c. 1010-970 B.C.)

El-Amarna Letters
Tablets of Tel El-Amarna; Palestine is under Egyptian rule and the governor of Jerusalem (plus other Egyptian rulers in Palestine) tells pharaoh Akhenaten (ruled c. 1022-1006 B.C.) of a general revolt of the natives

Jeremiah
Bible: I Kings
The foundation of Solomon’s temple is laid (c. 966 B.C.)

Ramesses at Kadesh
Poem recording the battle between Pharaoh Ramesses II (ruled c. 940-873 B.C.) and the Hittite King Muwatallis II; called the Battle of Kadesh (c. 936 B.C.).

Treaty Between Ramesses II and the Hittites
A treaty of peace was signed between Ramesses II (ruled c. 940-873 B.C.) and the Hittite king after the battle called Kadesh (c. 936 B.C.)

The Mouse as Vizier
Ancient Egyptian Tale

Jeremiah
Bible: I Kings
The kingdom of Israel is divided; Rehoboam rules Judah (c. 930-913 B.C.) and Jeroboam rules Israel (c. 930-909 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible: I Kings
Ramesses II (the Great) — called Shishak in the Bible — sacks Jerusalem (c. 925 B.C.)

Spoliation of Tombs
Extract from a longer document from the time of Ramesses IX (ruled c. 835-816 B.C.) showing that tomb robbery was common even during ancient times

Strabo
Ancient Geography
Description of ancient Egypt

Sulpicius Severus
Sacred History
Hoshea makes an alliance with the Ethiopians, who at that time held Egypt (c. 726 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible: II Kings
Hoshea, the king of Israel, conspires with the king of Egypt/Ethiopia and stops paying tribute to the king of Assyria; Sargon of Assyria carries away the people of Israel (c. 722 B.C.); New Chronology says this king of Egypt/Ethiopia was Hedjkheperre Shoshenq Si-Bast (Shoshenq IV)

Isaiah
Bible: Isaiah
The prophet Isaiah predicts the war of Assyria against Egypt (c. 713 B.C.)

Josephus
Antiquities of the Jews
How Sennacherib made an expedition against Hezekiah (King of Judah); what threatenings Rabshakeh made to Hezekiah when Sennacherib was gone against the Egyptians; how Isaiah the prophet encouraged him; how Sennacherib having failed to success in Egypt, returned to Jerusalem; and how upon his finding his army destroyed, he returned home (c. 704-701 B.C.)

Ezra
Bible: II Chronicles
The Battle for Jerusalem (c. 704-701 B.C.)

Herodotus
The History
Herodotus’ report of the invasion of Egypt by Sennacherib

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
Civil disorder in Egypt for two years followed by a twelve-man aristocracy (c. 687-670 B.C.)

Herodotus
The History
The twelve-man aristocracy diverts the flow of the Nile

Herodotus
The Histories
Psammetichus Sais took over Egypt and reigned there 54 years (c. 670 B.C.)

Herodotus
The Histories
The son of Psammetichus Sais — Necho or Pharaohnecho — rules Egypt for 16 years (c. 616 B.C.)

Ezra
Bible II Chronicles
Pharaohnecho, king of Egypt, set out to fight against the king of Assyria/Babylon by besieging Carchemish on the Euphrates River; Josiah, King of Judah, interferes and is killed (c. 610 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible: II Kings
Another version of Josiah’s death (c. 610 B.C.)

Josephus
Antiquities of the Jews
How Josiah fought with Necho and was wounded and died; Josiah’s son Jehoahaz (Shallum) becomes king of Judah (c. 610 B.C.)

Josephus
Antiquities of the Jews
When Necho returned from Assyria, he deposed Shallum and made Eliakim (Jehoiakim), his older brother, king of Judah (c. 610 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible: II Kings
When Necho returned from Assyria, he deposed Shallum and made Eliakim (Jehoiakim), his older brother, king of Judah (c. 610 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible: Jeremiah
Jeremiah makes a prophecy that Nebuchadnezzar would conquer Egypt (c. 607 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible II Kings
Nebuchadnezzar took all the land between Egypt and the Euphrates River (c. 605 B.C.)

Herodotus
The Histories
Psammis rules Egypt for 6 years (c. 600-594 B.C. )and his son Apries (Pharaohhophra) rules for 25 years (c. 594-570 B.C.)

Ezekiel
Bible: Ezekiel
Ezekiel makes a prophecy about Apries (Pharaohhophra) (c. 588 B.C.)

Ezekiel
Bible: Ezekiel
Ezekiel makes another prophecy concerning Egypt (c. 587 B.C.)

Ezekiel
Bible: Ezekiel
More prophecy concerning Egypt (c. 587 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible: Jeremiah
Pharaohhophra came with his army from Egypt to help Zedekiah, king of Judah, while the Chaldeans were raising a siege of Jerusalem (c. 587 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible: Jeremiah
Jerusalem is taken by the Chaldeans/Babylonians (c. 586 B.C.)

Jeremiah
Bible: Jeremiah
The remnant of the Israelites force Jeremiah to go with them to Egypt; Jeremiah predicts the destruction of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar (which occurred c. 571 B.C.) and makes a prophecy about Apries (Pharaohhophra) (c. 586 B.C.)

Ezekiel
Bible: Ezekiel
Ezekiel’s prophesy against Egypt (c. 586 B.C.)

Sulpicius Severus
Sacred History
The remnant Jews flee to Egypt (c. 586 B.C.)

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
Apries (Pharaohhophra) rules Egypt (c. 594-570 B.C.) and after him, Amasis, his son, rules while paying tribute to the Babylonians (c. 570-525 B.C.)

Herodotus
The Histories
Cambyses, son of Cyrus, conquers Egypt (c. 525 B.C.)

Arrian
Anabasis of Alexander
Alexander the Great conquers Egypt (332 B.C.)

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and founds Alexandria (332 B.C.)

Vitruvius
On Architecture
How Alexander chose the man who designed Alexandria (332. B.C.)

Josephus
The War of the Jews
Alexander the Great moved a colony of the Jews (along with other groups of people) to Alexandria in order to populate it (331 B.C.)

Arrian
Anabasis of Alexander
Alexander settles affairs in Egypt before leaving (331 B.C.)

Lucian
Octogenarians
After the death of Alexander the Great, all of Egypt, among other lands, was given to Ptolemy (323 B.C.)

Daniel
Bible: Daniel
Daniel tells (200 years earlier) of Alexander the Great and what happens at his death

Justin
Epitome of the Philippic Histories
Ptolemy takes over Egypt and wins over the people

Diodorus Siculus
Historical Library
Ptolemy brings the body of Alexander the Great to Egypt to bury (321 B.C.)

Josephus
Antiquities of the Jews
How Ptolemy took Jerusalem and transported many Jews to Alexandria (320 B.C.)

Vitruvius
On Architecture
Ptolemy Philadelphus establishes a library at Alexandria (277 B.C.)

Tertullian
Apology
Ptolemy Philadelphus calls for a Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures (277 B.C.)

Josephus
Antiquities of the Jews
Ptolemy Philadelphus calls for a Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures (277 B.C.)

Plutarch
The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans: Antony
The Ptolemys rule Egypt until the death of Cleopatra in 30 B.C.; Egypt becomes a Roman province

Also available in this series:

Volume One: Julius Caesar
Volume Two: Alexander the Great
Volume Three: Augustus, Jesus Christ, and Tiberius
Volume Four: Ancient Egypt
Volume Five: Caligula, Claudius, and Paul
Volume Six: Nero, Paul, and the Destruction of Jerusalem

 

More on the Ovarian Cancer Journey

February 26th, 2020

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I had seven nurses today.

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Me and oldest Grand — will he remember this moment in time?

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Me and Avery

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Avastin infusion is green today — they’re trying to change my DNA to that of a Martian.

We are having some difficulties. If you would like to help us, I would be grateful.

 

The Mercer County Conservative

February 26th, 2020

Mercer County Conservative
Conscience and Common Sense

On the Separation of Powers: “…I say, that Power must never be trusted without a check.” ―John Adams

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■ National News

PRESIDENT TRUMP

Don Jr. and Don Sr. and the WWII Vet

In a little over three years, Donald Trump has nominated and won Senate confirmation for 192 federal judges.

Donald Trump is appointing federal judges at a blistering pace — by the end of his first term, a quarter of them could be his choices

President Trump in India

BLOOMBERG

Bloomberg on why farmers can’t work in information technology MB: “I can teach anyone how to be a farmer. 1 dig a hole; 2 put a seed in; 3 put dirt on top; 4 add water; 5 up comes the corn.” The skill 4 information technology is completely different — you need more grey matter.

Bloomberg says healthcare will “bankrupt us” unless we deny care to the elderly. “If you show up with cancer & you’re 95 yrs old, we should say…there’s no cure, we can’t do anything.” Decrepit Mike will get treatment, the unwashed masses get nothing.

SANDERS

Bernie Sanders on the Soviet Union Press Conference 6/13/1988

Exclusive video: After returning from the Soviet Union BernieSanders says that he saw no deprivation and that people seemed happy. (Millions died from starvation)

BREAKING: Nicaraguan dictator Daniel Ortega takes a short break from killing children who protest his socialist dictatorship to endorse his old friend and advisor BernieSanders.

KLOBUCHAR

ICYMI: Amy Klobuchar says she wants to raise the “death tax” — that President Trump had previously cut.

‘Order at the border': Klobuchar demands illegal immigrants learn English in 2006 clip

BUTTIGIEG

Buttigieg vows to overturn ban on federal funding for abortions

Buttigieg promises health care to illegal immigrants if elected president

Buttigieg claims to be the only true Christian candidate

CORRUPTION

DHS Whistleblower against Obama Administration Philip Haney Found Dead – Shot and Killed

“K.T. McFarland Opens Up About Her Abuse at the Hands of Mueller’s Henchmen…suffice it so say, the rumors about how Mueller’s team operated are clearly true. These weren’t people looking for justice. These were people looking to deliver scalps in order to take down Trump, either directly or with the hope of creating a case for impeachment…”

This takes the cake. Order on Motion to Disqualify Judge — actual document in which Judge refuses to recuse herself from the case

Washington Post media columnist wants journalists to be harder on Trump. Comes up with catchy name for new approach: ‘Fairness First.’

PELOSI

Nancy Pelosi is Demanding Facebook and Twitter Remove This Video

ILHAN OMAR

Rep. Ilhan Omar’s ‘Reign of Terror’ to Suppress the Truth About Her Marriages

■ Mercer County News

Republican Candidates 2020 (primary is March 17)

County, State, National Candidates
— Mercer County Coroner Greg Larson
— Mercer County States Attorney Grace Simpson
— Mercer County Circuit Clerk — none
— IL-74th District State Representative Dan Swanson
— IL-37th State Senate District Win Stoller
— IL-17th District U. S. House of Representatives Esther King
— U.S. Senate Mark C. Curran, Tom Tarter, Peggy Hubbard, and Robert Marshall
— and, of course, Donald Trump for President.

Mercer County Board Candidates
–County Board District 1 – Rebecca Hawn — (District 1 includes Abingdon, Keithsburg, North Henderson, Ohio Grove, Suez and Mercer 6 Precincts.)
–County Board District 2 – none — (District 2 includes Rivoli, Greene, and Richland Grove 2 Precincts.)
–County Board District 3 — Linda Koepke –(District 3 includes Preemption 1, Preemption 2, Richland Grove 1, and Richland Grove 3 Precincts)
–County Board District 4 – Josh Frieden — (District 4 includes Duncan, Eliza, Millersburg, New Boston, and Perryton Precincts.)
–County Board District 5 – none — (District 5 includes Mercer 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Precincts.)

Precinct Committeemen Candidates
North Henderson — Jo Anne Nelson
Rivoli
Richland Grove 1 — Buck Rind
Richland Grove 2
Richland Grove 3
Suez — Jeff Gregory
Greene 1
Greene 2 — Susan DeBlock
Preemption 1
Preemption 2
Ohio Grove
Mercer 1 — Barb Chiles
Mercer 2 — Linda Sarabasa
Mercer 3
Mercer 4
Mercer 5
Mercer 6 — Bob Vickrey
Perryton
Millersburg
Duncan
Keithsburg — Becky Hawn
New Boston — Harvey Bluedorn (write-in)
Eliza
Abington — Dusty Terrill

Important Dates for Mercer County

February 26 — On Wednesday, February 26 from 6:00-8:00 pm, our campaign office is open as we welcome Esther King, candidate for the Illinois 17th Congressional District. Come meet Esther as we support her run to get Cheri Bustos out of office. Our campaign office is at 604 SW 3rd Street, next to Dollar General.

July 10 — Mercer County Republican cash raffle. One ticket $10 — three tickets $20. Drawing is July 10th at our booth at the Mercer County Fair 5:30 pm. Need not be present to win. $3,000 worth of tickets will be sold.

■ Illinois State News

Illinois candidates to watch:
Jeanne Ives for Congress (IL-06)
Mary Miller for Congress (IL-15)
Esther King for Congress (IL-17)

■ Education

Such a perfect, concise encapsulation of years of education funding stories. It goes like this: “How to spend frivolously while simultaneously convincing the public for more money? Starve some budget items the parents care about — they’ll assume taxes simply have to rise.”

Maryland High School History Lesson Compares Trump With Nazis, Communists

■ Words to Brighten Your February

• façade = NOUN the front of a building; any face of a building given special architectural treatment; a false, superficial, or artificial appearance or effect

• garish = ADJ clothed in vivid colors; excessively or disturbingly vivid; offensively or distressingly bright, glaring; tastelessly showy, flashy

• malarkey = NOUN insincere or foolish talk, nonsense

Maintain Liberty — Learn Logic

Things to consider concerning screen time:

— Gray Matters: Too Much Screen Time Damages the Brain — Neuroimaging research shows excessive screen time damages the brain — “Taken together, [studies show] internet addiction is associated with structural and functional changes in brain regions involving emotional processing, executive attention, decision making, and cognitive control.”

— “As most parents of small children will reluctantly admit, nothing can occupy a child quite like television. Unfortunately, the scientific evidence suggests that using the boob tube as a babysitter has its price: the more time babies spend sitting in front of the screen, the more their social, cognitive and language development may suffer. Recent studies show that TV-viewing tends to decrease babies’ likelihood of learning new words, talking, playing and otherwise interacting with others….”

Subscribe to This E-Letter

If you know of others who would like to receive The Mercer County Conservative, send them this link.

 

The Little Red Lighthouse and the Great Gray Bridge

February 16th, 2020

The Little Red Lighthouse and the Great Gray Bridge by Hildegarde Swift, illustrated by Lynd Ward

Publication date 1942

This is the story about a lighthouse that stands near the George Washington Bridge in New York City.

On the bank of the Hudson River, a small red lighthouse protects boats with his beam and foghorn. One day, some workers arrive and start to build a gigantic steel bridge with huge flashing lights. The little red lighthouse feels afraid and wonders if he will ever be useful again. During one dark night, a violent storm threatens the safety of the boats on the river, and the role of the little lighthouse is revealed.

This part ALWAYS makes me cry:

“Then the great gray bridge talked to the little red lighthouse:

“Little brother, where is your light”

“Am I brother of yours, bridge?” wondered the lighthouse. “Your light was so bright that I thought mine was needed no more.”

“I call to the airplanes,” cried the bridge, “I flash to the ships of the air. But you are still master of the river. Quick, let your light shine again. Each to his own place, little brother!”

So the little red lighthouse tried to shine once more, but though it tried and tried and tried, it could not turn itself on.”

Teaching point of the story: even the small are important.

You can see the filmography story here.

Post may contain affiliate links to materials I recommend. Read my full disclosure statement.

 

More Portuguese Language Articles

February 6th, 2020

A Transformação da Educação Clássica
Publicado por Joabe De Juda

O que é Educação Clássica?

Educação Clássica é ler Homero e Platão, ou César e Cícero? Muitos educadores clássicos diriam que sim – ler tal literatura é uma parte essencial de uma educação clássica. Mas, será que um foco desenfreado em literatura clássica (Grega e Romana) nos leva a Cristo?

Nós definimos uma Educação Clássica de modo diferente. Nós seguimos um modelo e método clássico de educação (chamado de O Trivium), mas o nosso interesse na literatura humanista clássica é apenas eventual. Não queremos seguir estas três ferramentas de aprendizagem (idiomas clássicos, habilidade no pensar e habilidade na comunicação) de modo que possamos realmente ler como Homero, pensar como Aristóteles e falar como Demóstenes. Como Cristãos, queremos aprender idiomas, lógica e retórica de forma que possamos realmente ler, pensar e falar – ponto final! Queremos dominar estas proveitosas ferramentas, mas não queremos utilizá-las como os antigos Gregos e Romanos faziam. Eles utilizavam essas ferramentas para servir a tudo, exceto ao Deus vivo e verdadeiro. Os Gregos e Romanos pegaram estas ferramentas e as usaram para seguir seus próprios propósitos. Nós apenas estamos reivindicando o que é, por direito, a herança dos piedosos, limpando-a e devolvendo-a para servir a nosso Senhor. As Escrituras contêm tudo o que precisamos para testar toda palavra humana e reter o que for resgatável para uso piedoso. Antes de poder utilizar qualquer coisa – incluindo literatura clássica – devemos coar através da peneira crítica das Escrituras……


O Trivium em uma Cápsula

Por Harvey e Laurie Bluedorn. Copyright 2002. Todos os direitos reservados

Traduzido por Joabe de Judá Carvalho

O Trivium consiste nas três primeiras disciplinas formais das sete artes liberais: Gramática, Lógica e Retórica. Este é o Trivium formal no sentido clássico. O Trivium formal é uma reflexão acadêmica do, ainda mais básico, Trivium Bíblico: as capacidades mentais do Conhecimento, Entendimento e Sabedoria (* Veja a lista de referências bíblicas ao final deste artigo). O estilo clássico de educação é baseado nestas três capacidades mentais ou intelectuais:
Primeiro: receber e reunir informação – Conhecimento;
Segundo: organizar e conectar a informação em uma ordem lógica – Entendimento;
Terceiro: colocar essa informação reunida e ordenada dentro de uma expressão prática – Sabedoria.
Crianças estão continuamente se desenvolvendo no Conhecimento, Entendimento e Sabedoria. Apesar destas três capacidades serem mutuamente dependentes umas das outras e elas se desenvolverem na criança desde antes do nascimento, todavia as crianças atravessam diversas etapas de desenvolvimento ou níveis de aprendizagem, onde uma capacidade se destaca dentre as outras. Descreveremos estas etapas abaixo. Tenha em mente que nossa divisão etária não se dispões a ser a única possível. São apenas aproximações arbitrárias e podem variar bastante de criança para criança.

O Nível de Conhecimento (ou Fase da Gramática): antes do nascimento até os 12 anos
A criança está sempre aprendendo fatos, relacionando-os entre si e expressando estes fatos e relações de maneira prática. Mas existe, no entanto, uma ordem lógica e de desenvolvimento entre eles. Durante os primeiros anos (até os 10 anos), a criança está massivamente aprendendo a linguagem, construindo seu vocabulário e preenchendo sua compreensão básica do mundo. Essas crianças precisam de mais treinamento do que de ensino. Elas devem ser treinadas para terem autodisciplina e serem preenchidas com informação proveitosa. Isso estabelece uma base adequada para estudos mais formais posteriormente. Enquanto todas as três capacidades estão se desenvolvendo com o passar do tempo, a capacidade de Conhecimento cresce com mais destaque. Chamamos este período de intensa aprendizagem de fatos básicos de Nível de Conhecimento Inicial porque ele estabelece a base para o que vem adiante, que é o período mais intenso de construção do Conhecimento.
Por volta dos 9 ou 10 anos, estas crianças desenvolvem a capacidade de pensamento de modo mais abstrato. Elas alcançaram tal estado de maturidade que a lâmpada se acende e sua capacidade de Conhecimento se torna uma onda crescente dentro de um intenso período, onde a capacidade e a habilidade de estudo acadêmico formal de conteúdos relacionados ao Conhecimento são mais produtivas. Elas conseguem lidar com conceitos matemáticos abstratos. Conseguem discernir a diferença entre um substantivo e um verbo. Isto pode ser chamado de Nível de Conhecimento Final. As habilidades de Entendimento (raciocínio) estão começando a aumentar o seu ritmo de desenvolvimento neste nível, deste modo alguns classificam isso como o início do Nível de Entendimento. Mas isso é, de fato, apenas um período de aquecimento. Suas habilidades de Conhecimento devem se tornar cada vez mais desenvolvidas antes que as habilidades de Entendimento (raciocínio) ou Sabedoria (expressão prática) possam se desenvolver de forma mais rápida.
Enquanto a criança está no Nível de Conhecimento, focamos em ensiná-la as habilidades de compreensão, de receber informação com precisão, de reunir os fatos. O Conhecimento é transmitido através de narração e demonstração. Ele vem através dos sentidos. Desenvolvemos um vocabulário de fatos e regras. Neste nível, não necessitamos separar as matérias. Podemos combinar: 1) linguagem com literatura e belas-artes; 2) matemática com ciências naturais; e 3) história com geografia e estudos culturais. Nosso objetivo é desenvolver competência nas ferramentas de pesquisa: leitura, escuta, escrita, observação e medição.

O Nível de Entendimento (ou Fase da Lógica): dos 13 aos 15 anos
O intenso período de Conhecimento dura cerca de 3 anos e, quando acaba, o Conhecimento, é claro, continua a crescer e a se desenvolver, mas a capacidade de Entendimento, que vinha se desenvolvendo todo este tempo, emerge como o líder nesta corrida. Com uma ampla base de Conhecimento já alicerçada e o desenvolvimento do Entendimento chegando ao nível de maturidade, outra lâmpada se acende. A capacidade de Entendimento agora se torna uma onda crescente dentro de um período intenso, onde a capacidade e a habilidade de estudo acadêmico formal de conteúdos relacionados ao Entendimento são mais produtivas. Os jovens de 13 a 15 anos começam a desenvolver suas habilidades de raciocínio. Eles conseguem lidar com álgebra e geometria. Eles estão desenvolvendo o aparato crítico para o pensamento. Devem ser mais questionadores e analíticos. Suas mentes têm que ser treinadas para chegar a uma conclusão correta das coisas e para poder avaliar logicamente pressupostos e conclusões.
Quando a criança está neste nível, nós a ensinamos a habilidade de raciocinar, de criticamente questionar, analisar, avaliar e discernir causas, motivos, meios, propósitos, objetivos e efeitos, para examinar a teoria. O Entendimento é transmitido através de instrução, correção e exercícios. Desenvolvemos um vocabulário de relações, ordem e abstrações. Nosso ensino tornar-se-á mais sequencial e sistemático, separando os diferentes ramos de aprendizagem. Nosso objetivo é desenvolver competência nas ferramentas de investigação: análise, comparação e contraste.

O Nível de Sabedoria (ou Fase da Retórica): dos 16 aos 18 anos
O intenso período de Entendimento dura cerca de 3 anos e, quando acaba, o Entendimento, é claro, continua a crescer e a se desenvolver, mas a capacidade de Sabedoria, que vinha se desenvolvendo todo este tempo, emerge como o líder nesta corrida. Quando uma ampla base de Conhecimento e Entendimento foi alicerçada e as desenvolventes partes da Sabedoria chegaram a um nível de maturidade, então a terceira lâmpada se acende. A capacidade de Sabedoria se torna uma onda crescente dentro de um período intenso, onde a capacidade e a habilidade de estudo acadêmico formal de conteúdos relacionados à Sabedoria são mais produtivas. Jovens mais velhos (de 16 a 18 anos) começam a desenvolver suas habilidades de comunicação e aplicação prática. Eles buscam expressar, de modo criativo e efetivo, as coisas que aprenderam e a colocar estas coisas em prática.
Quando a criança está neste nível, nós a ensinamos as habilidades de julgamento prudente e de se expressar efetivamente através da comunicação e aplicação prática. A Sabedoria é transmitida através do encorajamento à iniciativa individual e inovação, de fazer perguntas e de liderar debates. Desenvolvemos um vocabulário de ideias e valores filosóficos. Nós começamos a reagrupar o conhecimento e as habilidades de separar disciplinas. Buscamos a aplicação de princípios, valores e objetivos.
O intenso período de Sabedoria dura 2 ou 3 anos e, quando acaba, a Sabedoria, é claro, continua a crescer e a se desenvolver, mas todas as três capacidades (Conhecimento, Entendimento e Sabedoria) que vinham se desenvolvendo todo este tempo, emergem como um conjunto plenamente desenvolvido de ferramentas.

O Nível (ou Fase) Final de Acabamento: Dos 19 anos em diante
Durante os próximos dois anos, como todas as capacidades mentais foram plenamente desenvolvidas, a capacidade moral da consciência, que vinha se desenvolvendo todo este tempo, é trazida à sua completa capacidade. Jovens adultos de 19 a 20 anos devem trazer estas capacidades em harmonia debaixo da capacidade moral da consciência. A capacidade de assumir responsabilidade deve estar plenamente desenvolvida ao completar a maioridade bíblica de 20 anos (Números 14.29, etc.). Naturalmente, todas as capacidades continuarão a crescer, mas as ferramentas básicas que serão utilizadas no decorrer da vida devem estar todas desenvolvidas agora.

Aplicando o Trivium às matérias
Esta mesma progressão (Conhecimento, Entendimento, Sabedoria) se aplica a muitas outras coisas. Por exemplo, cada matéria individual de estudo tem três níveis de desenvolvimento. Primeiro nós aprendemos os fatos, que é o Conhecimento. Depois de sabermos uma quantidade considerável de fatos, começamos a descobrir a conexão entre eles, que é o Entendimento. E depois de sabermos uma quantidade considerável de conexões entre os fatos, criamos maneiras de se expressar e fazer aplicações dos fatos, que é a Sabedoria.

Disfunções
Se falharmos em desenvolver adequadamente uma capacidade ou, eventualmente, colocar todas as capacidades em equilíbrio, criaremos uma disfunção da aprendizagem. O Conhecimento é o mais básico de todos. Sem o Conhecimento de um assunto não podemos continuar a construir um Entendimento apropriado ou desenvolver Sabedoria no assunto. Da mesma forma, o desenvolvimento inadequado do Entendimento prejudicará a Sabedoria e, também, a capacidade de buscar o Conhecimento. Finalmente, um desenvolvimento inadequado da Sabedoria prejudicará a busca do Conhecimento e do Entendimento. Por exemplo, se falharmos em ensinar as habilidades fônicas básicas, iremos artificialmente causar a dislexia (inabilidade de ler bem). Se falharmos em ensinar as habilidades lógicas básicas, iremos artificialmente causar o que chamamos de dislogia (inabilidade de raciocinar bem). Se falharmos em ensinar as habilidades básicas de se expressar e de fazer aplicação prática, iremos artificialmente causar o que chamamos de dyssophia¹ (inabilidade de exercer um bom julgamento).

Resumo
Em resumo, as capacidades de Conhecimento, Entendimento e Sabedoria não são pequenos compartimentos bonitinhos com portas fechadas entre eles. Antes, todas elas se desenvolvem ao mesmo tempo bem desde o princípio, ainda que cada uma delas passem por sucessivos períodos de intenso desenvolvimento, até que elas finalmente se emparelhem umas às outras e trabalhem harmoniosamente juntas. Estas faixas etárias são apenas aproximadas e sua criança pode estar em ambos os lados da linha.
Para resumir tudo em uma única frase: Primeiro instruímos a criança no Conhecimento, depois orientamos o jovem no Entendimento, e depois desafiamos o jovem mais velho na Sabedoria.

* Êxodo 31.3; 35.31; 36.1; Deutoronômio 1.13,15; 1 Reis 7.14; Jó 15.8-9; Provérbios 2.6; 3.19,20; 5.1,2; 8.12; 18.15; 23.23; 24.3,4; Daniel 1.4,17; 5.14; Efésios 1.8,9,17,18; Colossenses 1.9,10; 2.2,3; e muitos outros lugares.

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¹ Neologismo da língua inglesa sem termo correspondente em português. É formada do grego pelo prefixo dys (dificuldade; falta, privação, mau estado) e pela palavra sophía (sabedoria, saber, ciência).

 

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